Gastroenterology

Ulcerative colitis: what causes disease?

Ulcerative colitis is a chronic disease of the gastrointestinal tract, in which the inflamed mucosa of the colon. The full name of the disease – ulcerative colitis (UC). This disease can have serious consequences, therefore it is necessary to know about its causes, symptoms and treatment options.

What causes ulcerative colitis?

The exact causes of ulcerative colitis is still unknown, but doctors talk about risk factors that affect the appearance of the disease. These include:

  • The hereditary factor. If someone from the next of kin sick with ulcerative colitis, high probability of occurrence of disease over time in healthy family member.
  • Infection. The development of inflammation of the colon can cause human infection by bacteria such as Mycobacterium paratuberculosis, Listeria monocytogenis.
  • Autoimmune problems. It so happens that the human immune system begins to work correctly, while the mucosa of the large intestine produces the antigen, which leads to chronic inflammation.
  • Stress. Some doctors and scientists argue that the development of ulcerative colitis is directly related to the stay of the person in stressful situations. Noted that the disease is more common in urban residents, especially affected residents of cities with high pace of life and constant stress.

Symptoms of ulcerative colitis

Manifestations of ulcerative colitis are as follows:

  • Diarrhea, stool with blood. Also the stool is pasty, not only with blood but also mucus, pus, can have a sharp, unpleasant smell.
  • False urge to defecation.
  • The painfulness of the process of defecation.
  • Cutting, aching pain in the abdomen, often in the left side.
  • Poor appetite, weight loss.
  • Bloating.
  • Fever.
  • Problems with the heart, kidneys and other organs from dehydration.

Ulcerative colitis also can manifest itself with symptoms such as arthritis, conjunctivitis, stomatitis.

How to deal with ulcerative colitis?

Ulcerative colitis treatment can be pharmacological, surgical and comprehensive. Also important psychological support for the patient and a special diet. Patients with ulcerative colitis of mild and moderate severity are usually treated on an outpatient basis, severe patients are shown hospital stay.

When dealing with ulcerative colitis diet is very important. It involves exclusion from the diet of raw vegetables and fruits, legumes, nuts, spicy, pickled, sour, salty food. All meals need to be boiled or steamed, grind before use. The diet of the patient must be present meat and fish low-fat varieties, cottage cheese, egg white.

Surgical treatment is indicated if conservative does not give the desired results, there is a risk of serious complications, the degree of damage of the colon significant.

What are complications from ulcerative colitis?

If ulcerative colitis is not treated, it could lead to dangerous complications

  • Exhaustion, which can lead to death of the patient.
  • Perforation of the colon (through damage to the intestinal walls), which can also be fatal.
  • Narrowing of the rectum and colon, intestinal obstruction.
  • Intestinal bleeding.
  • Cancer of the colon. In ulcerative colitis the colon can be affected almost entirely, which is a significant risk factor for the development of cancer disease.

Most often ulcerative colitis remains a chronic disease with periods of exacerbation and remission, which need to be monitored. If it is not treated, it can be very dangerous to life.

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